ZMap · The Internet Scanner

ZMap is an open-source network scanner that enables researchers to easily perform Internet-wide network studies.

With a single machine and a well provisioned network uplink, ZMap is capable of performing a complete scan of the IPv4 address space in under 5 minutes, approaching the theoretical limit of ten gigabit Ethernet.

ZMap can be used to study protocol adoption over time, monitor service availability, and help us better understand large systems distributed across the Internet.

ZMap was developed by a team of computer scientists at the University of Michigan: Zakir Durumeric, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Michigan Eric Wustrow, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Michigan J. Alex Halderman, Assistant Professor, University of MichiganThe research team can be reached at

While ZMap is a powerful tool for researchers, please keep in mind that by running ZMap, you are potentially scanning the ENTIRE IPv4 address space and some users may not appreciate your scanning.

We encourage ZMap users to respect requests to stop scanning and to exclude these networks from ongoing scanning.We suggest that users coordinate with local network administrators before performing any scans and we have developed a set of scanning best practices, which we encourage researchers to consider.

It should go without saying that researchers should refrain from exploiting vulnerabilities or accessing protected resources, and should comply with any special legal requirements in their jurisdictions.

Installing the Latest ZMap Release

The latest stable release of ZMap is version 2.1.0 and supports Linux, Mac OS, and BSD. It can be installed through the built-in package managers on the following operating systems:

Debian or Ubuntu: sudo apt-get install zmap

Fedora, CentOS, and RHEL: sudo yum install zmap

Gentoo: sudo emerge zmap

Mac OS (brew): brew install zmap

Arch Linux: Available through AUR

ZMap is hosted on GitHub at Issues should be reported on the Github Issue Tracker or sent to our team at

Building ZMap from Source

The latest bleeding-edge version of ZMap can cloned from the git repository at git:// The latest stable release can also be downloaded at v2.1.0.tar.gz.

ZMap can be built from source with most recent versions of gcc and the CMake build system. If you are building from source, you will also need the following libraries: GMP, libpcap, Gengetopt, byacc, and flex. These can be installed as follows:

Debian or Ubuntu: sudo apt-get install build-essential cmake libgmp3-dev libpcap-dev gengetopt byacc flex

Red Hat Enterprise Linux or CentOS: sudo yum install cmake gmp gmp-devel libpcap-devel gengetopt byacc flex

Mac OS: brew install cmake gmp gengetopt json-c byacc libdnet or sudo port install gmp libdnet byacc flex gengetopt cmake

Once these requirements have been installed, ZMap can be installed by running cmake -DENABLE_DEVELOPMENT=OFF followed by make and sudo make install.

Redis support is not enabled by default. If you want to use ZMap with Redis, you will first need to install Hiredis. Then, rebuild ZMap with the command cmake -DWITH_REDIS=ON. If you don’t want to run ZMap as root, you can give the binary permission to use the raw network with setcap cap_net_raw=ep /usr/local/sbin/zmap.

Similarly, JSON support is not enabled by default. If you want to output to JSON, install JSON-C. Then rebuild ZMap with cmake -DWITH_JSON=ON. Installing json-c from source requires git and autotools to be available. For more information on how to install JSON-C, see

Installing json-c from source requires git and autotools to be available. For more information on how to install json-c, please see If you are running on Ubuntu, these dependencies can be installed by running: sudo apt-get install git pkg-config libjson0-dev.

Source: ZMap · The Internet Scanner


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